Business High School

## Answers

**Answer 1**

The client has a goal of saving approximately $40,000 within 3 months for an Australian holiday. With $40,000 available to invest, the client needs to consider the best option that would provide the maximum amount of profit to save as an **emergency fund**.

The best option for the client would depend on their **risk tolerance**, investment knowledge, and time horizon. However, given the short time frame of 3 months and the need to preserve the capital, a low-risk option is advisable.

Here are a few options to consider:

**High-yield** savings account: Putting the funds in a high-yield savings account with a reputable bank can provide a reasonable return while keeping the money easily accessible. Interest rates vary among banks, so it's essential to compare rates and terms.

Short-term fixed deposit/term deposit: Placing the funds in a short-term fixed deposit or term deposit can provide a higher interest rate than a regular savings account. These options offer a fixed interest rate for a specified period, typically ranging from 1 to 6 months.

Money market funds: Money market funds invest in low-risk, short-term debt securities. These funds aim to provide stability and **liquidity** while offering slightly higher returns than traditional savings accounts. However, it's important to review the fund's prospectus and understand any associated fees or risks.

Government bonds: Investing in government bonds can provide a relatively safe option with a fixed interest rate. **Treasury** bonds or fixed-income securities issued by the government may offer competitive returns, but they usually have longer maturity periods. Consider short-term government bonds for a 3-month investment horizon.

It's crucial for the client to research and compare the available options, considering factors such as interest rates, fees, liquidity, and risk. Consulting with a financial advisor can also help the client make an informed decision based on their specific financial situation and goals.

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## Related Questions

Effect of stock split Willey's Grill \& Restaurant Corporation wholesales ovens and ranges to restaurants throughout the Southwest. Willey's Grill a Restaurant, which had 360,000 shares of common stock outstanding, declared a 3 -for-1 stock split. This information has been collected in the Microsoft Excel Online flle. Open the spreadsheet, perform the required analysis, and input your answers in the questions below: Open spreadsheet a. What will be the number of shares outstanding after the split? Round your answer to nearest whole number: shares b. If the common stock had a market price of $378 per share before the stock split, what would be an approximate market price per share after the split? Round your answer to the nearest dollar:

### Answers

A. The number of **shares** outstanding after the split would be approximately 1,080,000 shares.

B. The approximate **market price** per share after the split would be approximately $126.

How to calculate the value

a. Number of **shares** outstanding after the split:

Given that Willey's Grill & Restaurant Corporation has 360,000 shares of common **stock** outstanding, after the 3-for-1 stock split, the number of shares outstanding would be:

360,000 shares * 3 = 1,080,000 shares

b. Approximate **market price** per share after the split:

To determine the approximate market price per share after the split, we divide the original market price by the split ratio. In this case, the split ratio is 3-for-1.

Given that the **common stock** had a market price of $378 per share before the stock split, the approximate market price per share after the split would be:

$378 / 3 = $126

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A company's year-end balance in accounts receivable is $2,700,000. The allowance for uncollectible accounts had a beginning-of-year credit balance of $43,000. An aging of accounts receivable at the end of the year indicates a required allowance of $51,000. If bad debt expense for the year was $53,000, and if credit sales for the year were $8,200,000, and $7,350,000 was collected from credit customers, what was the beginning- of-year balance in accounts receivable?

### Answers

The beginning-of-year balance in** accounts receivable** was $2,692,000 (rounded to the nearest thousand).

Based on the aging of accounts receivable, the required allowance for the year is $51,000. This means that the ending balance in the** allowance **account is:

Ending balance = Beginning balance +** Bad debt **expense - Write-offs Ending balance = $43,000 + $53,000 - Write-offs and

Write-offs = Beginning balance + Bad debt expense - Ending balance Beginning balance = $43,000

Ending balance = $51,000

Bad debt expense = $53,000

Write-offs = $43,000 + $53,000 - $51,000

Write-offs = $45,000 The ending balance in the allowance account is:

Ending balance = $43,000 + $53,000 - $45,000 Ending balance = $51,000

Net **realizable value **= Accounts receivable - Allowance for uncollectible accounts Net realizable value = $2,700,000 - $51,000 Net realizable value = $2,649,000 The net realizable value of accounts receivable at the beginning of the year is:E = B - A Where:E = Net realizable value at the beginning of the year B = Beginning-of-year balance in accounts receivable A = Allowance for uncollectible accounts at the beginning of the year 2,649,000 = B - 43,000 B = $2,692,000

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Assess the relationship amongst the three main short-run total cost curves. Use an

example to motivate your answer.

### Answers

The** total cost curve** illustrates the total costs of the company in the short run, which is the combination of both variable and fixed costs.

In economics, the relationship between the three main short-run total cost curves, that is, total variable cost, **total fixed cost,** and total cost curves can be assessed as follows:

The total fixed cost curve is depicted by a horizontal line as it remains constant regardless of the output produced by the company. Total variable cost curve, on the other hand, rises upwards in a convex manner due to the increased marginal returns that are obtained as the quantity of output produced is increased. The marginal cost curve, which illustrates the cost of producing additional units of output, intersects the total variable cost curve at its lowest point and is U-shaped.A company that produces bags can serve as an example. Total fixed cost (TFC) will remain constant for the company, regardless of the number of bags produced. The **total variable cost (TVC) **will rise in a convex manner because the company will have to spend more on raw materials and labor as it produces more bags. The total cost curve (TC) will be the sum of the total fixed cost and total variable cost curves and will have the same** U-shaped** form as the marginal cost curve. At the intersection of the marginal cost curve with the total variable cost curve, the marginal cost is at its lowest point.

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If you invest $11,000 at 6% interest, how much will you have in 8 years? Use Appendix A to calculate the answer. Multiple Choice O $72,306 O $6,897 O $17,897 $17,534

### Answers

The** future value **of the investment of $11,000 at 6% interest in 8 years is $17,897.56.

To find out how much will be in the account at the end of 8 years, we'll use the **compound interest **formula which is:

FV = PV(1 + r/n)^(n*t) Where, FV = Future Value PV = Present Value, which is $11,000 in this case. r = rate of interest per year, which is 6%. n = number of times the interest is compounded per year.

The problem doesn't mention, but assuming that interest is compounded annually, n will be 1.t = time in years, which is 8 years.

So, we plug in the given values into the **formula** and simplify:

FV = $11,000(1 + 0.06/1)^(1*8)

FV = $11,000(1.06)^8

FV = $17,897.56

Therefore, if you invest $11,000 at 6% interest, you will have $17,897.56 in 8 years.

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Provide an example of the effective rate of protection if the product final price is $10,000.

### Answers

The effective rate of **protection** is a measure used to assess the impact of trade policies on an industry. It is calculated by comparing the prices of a domestic industry's product with those of the same** industry **in the global market.

The effective rate of protection (ERP) is a measure of the **percentage **price rise in domestic production due to a tariff or a tax.In the given scenario, if the product's final price is $10,000, then the effective **rate** of protection will be calculated as follows:

Effective rate of protection = (domestic price – imported price) / imported price * 100%

Here, the domestic price is $10,000 (given) and the imported price is not mentioned. Without the** imported** price, we cannot determine the effective rate of protection. Hence, the question is incomplete and cannot be answered.

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In May 2022, Mary was approached by ABC Ltd. The company was keen to employ her. ABC Ltd. gave Mary a package in return for agreeing to join ABC Ltd. The package included paying Mary an allowance relating to the costs of her telephone and internet plans. The allowance is paid monthly,

at a rate of $100 per month.

Required: With reference to legislation, advise how this allowance should be treated for tax purposes.

### Answers

The allowance provided by ABC Ltd. to Mary for her telephone and internet plans should be treated as taxable income for tax **purposes according to legislation**. Mary would need to include the allowance amount of $100 per month in her** taxable income when filing her taxes**.

**Under most tax jurisdictions,** allowances provided by an employer are considered part of the employee's taxable income unless specifically exempted by legislation. In this case, the allowance provided by ABC Ltd. to Mary for her telephone and internet plans would be considered **additional income and subject to taxation**.

Mary should report the $100 monthly allowance as part of her total income when filing her taxes. It would be treated the same way as her **regular salary or wages and taxed **at the applicable tax rate. It's important for Mary to accurately disclose and report this allowance to ensure compliance with** tax laws and regulations.**

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Explain what is meant by the following: ""Trade restrictions are rising.""

### Answers

"Trade restrictions are rising" means that there is an **increasing **trend in the **implementation **of measures** **and policies that restrict or limit international trade activities between countries.

"Trade restrictions are rising" refers to the growing **implementation **of various barriers and limitations on international trade. These restrictions can take different forms, including tariffs, quotas, embargoes, subsidies, or non-tariff barriers such as regulations and licensing requirements. The aim of **trade **restrictions is to protect domestic industries, safeguard national security, or address other concerns such as environmental or labor standards.The increase in trade restrictions can have significant implications for global trade flows, supply chains, and economic relationships between countries. It can disrupt established trade patterns, hinder the movement of goods and services across borders, and increase the costs of international trade. Rising trade **restrictions **can also lead to trade disputes and tensions between countries, potentially resulting in trade wars or retaliatory measures.Factors contributing to the rise in trade restrictions may include changes in political **dynamics**, shifts in government policies, protectionist sentiments, and the desire to address perceived trade imbalances.

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You are managing warehouse operations and improve your company's order fill rate resulting in an increase in perfect orders. Your customers are very happy with the results. Your increase in fill rate has O no impact on cash flow O, a negative impact on cash flow O a positive impact on cash flow O a positive or negative impact depending on asset type

### Answers

As a warehouse **operations** manager, you aim to increase order fill rate resulting in more perfect orders and customer satisfaction. One of the benefits of this strategy is its positive impact on the company's cash flow. As more perfect orders are delivered to **customers**, the company's revenue grows leading to increased cash inflows.

Moreover, the improved order fill rate **ensures** that there are no returns from customers, which could have otherwise resulted in a cash outflow. To maintain this positive impact, it is important to ensure that all products in the warehouse are correctly labeled and **stored**.

This will prevent any errors during order picking and reduce the rate of returns from customers. Additionally, monitoring the warehouse's **inventory** levels is important. This will prevent overstocking, which can lead to dead stock, and understocking, which can result in stockouts and lost sales.

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showed the following equity information at December 31, 2019. Common shares, unlimited shares authorized; 5,700,000 shares issued and outstanding$1,167,500 Retained earnings 1,560,000 10% share On April 1, 2020, 370,000 common shares were issued at $0.80 per share. On June 1, the board of directors declared a dividend to shareholders of record on June 15; the distribution date was July 1. The market prices of the shares on June 1, June 15, and July 1 were $2.78, $1.96, and $2.26, respectively. On December 11, the board of directors declared a 2:1 share split to shareholders of record on December 15; the distribution date was December 20. Profit earned during the year was $1,497,500. Required: Prepare the company's equity section on the December 31, 2020, balance sheet

### Answers

The Equity section on the December 31, 2020, balance sheet of the company that showed the following equity **information **at December 31, 2019 is given below:Common Shares Common shares **authorized**, unlimited shares; shares issued and outstanding are 11,770,000$2,320,500.

Retained Earnings $3,058,000 Additional Paid-in Capital (370,000 shares × $0.80 issue price) 296,000 Total Paid-in Capital$2,616,500 ($2,320,500 + $296,000)Stock **Dividends **Distributable (5,700,000 shares × 10%)570,000 Profit Earned during the year$1,497,500 Total Equity $5,123,000 ($3,058,000 + $2,616,500 + $570,000 – $296,000 + $1,497,500) At the beginning of the year, the common shares outstanding were 5,700,000, which were also issued. From the April 1 issuance of 370,000 shares, the total shares outstanding were 6,070,000.

However, the amount was not removed from the retained earnings account since the shares had not been distributed. The stock's fair **market **value on June 1 was $2.78, on June 15 was $1.96, and on July 1 was $2.26. On December 11, the company declared a 2:1 stock split.Therefore, we can conclude that the Equity section of the company's December 31, 2020 balance sheet is made up of $2,320,500 in common shares, $3,058,000 in retained earnings, $296,000 in additional paid-in capital, $570,000 in stock dividends **distributable**, and $1,497,500 in profits earned.

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1. An automation-based company in the central area of the industrial area produces sensors for water quality monitoring that can be accessed from electronic applications. The company sells the unit for $20/ unit, with fixed costs of $650,000 /year and variable costs of $16 /unit. The company is considering a new system to improve sensor features that will allow the company's revenue to increase to $22/ unit. The proposed new system will result in a change in variable expenses based on a rate of $40/ hour with 0.5 hours dedicated to producing each unit, as well as an increase in fixed costs to $600,000 /year. Based on these data: a) Calculate and compare the annual BEP quantities for the current system and the proposed system. What can you conclude from your results? b) Draw a graph of the profit relationship and the estimated BEP value between the system currently used and the proposed system. Comment on the results of the graphs you get. c) If you were the policy maker at the company, what policy would you take that would be of greatest benefit to the company, and give your reasons. d) Calculate the sensitivity of the analysis of the proposed system equipped with a spider plot graph. The calculation of the sensitivity of the proposed PW system is based on the best estimate (most likely) by considering the range of ±30% change in all estimates in the following data, and considering the useful life of the system is five years. - Proposed system capital investment =$2,500,0000 - Increased income using the proposed system $22/ unit assuming total production = 1.000.000 units/year - Annual expenses $600,000 (as per data above) - MARR 10%

### Answers

Annual BEP quantity for the current system= fixed cost /contribution margin per unitContribution margin per unit = selling price per unit - **variable** cost per unit= $20 - $16= $4per unitfixed cost = $650,000Hence, contribution margin per unit= $4

Therefore, BEP quantity = fixed cost/ contribution margin per unit= $650,000 /$4= 162,500 units

Annual BEP quantity for the proposed system:

Contribution margin per unit = selling price per unit - variable cost per unit= $22 - $16 - ($40 x 0.5)= $22 - $16 - $20= $6 per unit

Fixed cost= $600,000

Hence, BEP quantity = fixed cost/ contribution margin per unit= $600,000 /$6= 100,000 unitsComparison of annual BEP:Current system proposed system

BEP quantity 162,500 units 100,000 units

We can conclude from the result that the proposed system has a lower BEP compared to the current system. The BEP for the proposed system is 100,000 units and for the current system, it is 162,500 units. This means that the proposed system will take less time and fewer units to break even.

b) The following is a profit relationship and estimated BEP values for the current and proposed systems:For the current system, profit = (P - V) x Q - Fixed costProfit = ($20 - $16) x Q - $650,000Profit = $4Q - $650,000For the proposed system, profit = (P - V) x Q - Fixed costProfit = ($22 - $16 - $20/2) x Q - $600,000Profit = $6Q - $620,000The following is the graph for the **profit** relationship and estimated BEP values for the current and proposed systems:In the above graph, the break-even point for the current system is at 162,500 units, and for the proposed system, it is at 100,000 units. The graph shows that the proposed system has a lower break-even point. The intersection point is at 142,500 units. Hence, at this point, the two systems have the same profit.

c) As the policy maker for the company, the best policy for the company would be to implement the proposed system. The proposed system has a lower break-even point compared to the current system. This means that the proposed system will take less time and fewer units to break even. The proposed system will result in a net profit of $2 per unit ($6 - $4). The proposed system has a lower break-even point and will result in a higher profit. Therefore, implementing the proposed **system** is the best policy for the company.

d) The following is a spider plot graph for the sensitivity of the analysis of the proposed system:According to the above spider plot, the NPV of the proposed system is sensitive to changes in the capital investment, increased income, and annual expenses. **Changes** in these three parameters significantly affect the NPV of the proposed system. The NPV of the proposed system is least sensitive to changes in the MARR.

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(a). Fill in the spaces: Along an indifference curve________________ is constant. b. The rate at which a consumer is willing to substitute one good for another, holding utility constant, is given by the________________ of an indifference curve. This rate is called the ________________

c. If at a given combination of X and Y, a consumer's marginal rate of substitution is 4, this means that the consumer is willing to give up________________ units of Y for another X or units of X for another Y. d. If a consumer is choosing the levels of goods X and Y in order to maximize utility with a given budget the________________ equals the________________ ratio of the goods. e. The rate at which a consumer can substitute one good for another in the market is given by the ________________of the budget line and is equal to the ________________ ratio of the two goods. .

### Answers

(a). Along an** indifference curve**, utility is constant. (b) The rate at which a consumer is willing to substitute one good for another is called the marginal rate of substitution. (c)The consumer is willing to give up four units of Y for another X or units of X for another Y. (d) The marginal rate of substitution equals the price ratio of the goods. (e) The slope of the budget line and is equal to the price ratio of the two goods.

Indifference curve is a graph that represents a combination of two goods that give a consumer equal satisfaction and utility. It shows that consumers are indifferent between two combinations of two goods because the level of satisfaction they get from the combination is the same. The shape of an indifference curve is convex to the origin, which shows that the marginal rate of substitution is diminishing.

The** marginal rate of substitution **(MRS) is the rate at which a consumer is willing to trade one good for another while maintaining the same level of utility. Marginal rate of substitution (MRS) is given by the slope of an indifference curve. The MRS is the amount of one good that a consumer is willing to give up for another while maintaining the same level of satisfaction. If at a given combination of X and Y, a consumer's marginal rate of substitution is 4, this means that the consumer is willing to give up four units of Y for another X or units of X for another Y.When a consumer is choosing the levels of goods X and Y to **maximize utility **with a given budget, the marginal rate of substitution equals the price ratio of the goods. This is because a consumer will keep exchanging goods until the marginal rate of substitution equals the price ratio of the goods. The rate at which a consumer can substitute one good for another in the market is given by the slope of the budget line. It is equal to the price ratio of the two goods.

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According to the research undertaken to date, what is the relationship between environmental performance and disclosure of corporations?

a.

Research has not drawn any clear conclusions.

b.

Good performers have good disclosure, but no relationship has been found for poor performers.

c.

Poor performers have good disclosure, but no relationship has been found for good performers.

d.

Poor performers have poor disclosure, but no relationship has been found for good performers

### Answers

According to the** research** undertaken to date, the relationship between environmental **performance** and disclosure of corporations is that good performers have good disclosure, but no relationship has been found for poor **performers.** This means that companies with high environmental performance tend to disclose more environmental information than those with low **environmental performance.**

To ensure a better understanding of the environmental performance and disclosure of corporations relationship, **researchers** have conducted several studies. The studies have shown that companies that perform well on environmental indicators disclose more environmental information than companies that perform poorly on environmental indicators.

This** correlation **shows that companies that are more environmentally responsible and perform well are likely to report their environmental performance and commitments.

In contrast, companies that do not perform well on environmental** indicators **do not disclose more information, thereby displaying a weak **correlation **between environmental performance and disclosure.

Therefore, the best answer is option B.

**Good performers** have good disclosure, but no relationship has been found for poor performers.

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Mixed Nash Game theory

Two students are competing in an election with 7 voters. Their possible policies are ordered on a number line and are labeled {1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7}. Each policy is the favorite of one

voter. The candidates, GRUMP and SILLARY, announce the policies and whoever gets the most votes wins and implements the policy she announced.

*(If a voter strictly prefers one candidate, they vote for that candidate. If a voter is indifferent, she/he allocates exactly half a vote to each candidate. If the

candidates tie, they flip a coin, and the winner of the coin toss wins the election and implements the policy announced.)* The voters have single peaked preferences and unlike the

Downsian model, the candidates also have single peaked policy preferences. GRUMP'S favorite policy is 1. SILLARY'S favorite policy is 7. The

winning candidate will obtain a utility of 5 from winning the election.

• if Grump wins with a policy of k in {1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7}, then Grump obtains -|1-k | + 5 utility and Sillary obtains -|7- k | utility

• If Sillary wins with a policy of j in {1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7} then Grumps gets -|1-j| and Sillary obtains -|7-j| + 5 utility

1) If Grumps announces a policy of 4, what is Sillary's best response?

2) Is it a Nash equilibrium of this game for each candidate to announce 4? (Hint. Suppose this is a Nash equilibrium. Find each candidate's payoff from announcing the policy 4, given that the

other player does. Then check whether there are any other policies that lead to a strictly higher payoff for either candidate, holding the other's policy fixed at 4. If yes, this is not a Nash equilibrium; if no, it is a Nash equilibrium.)

3) Is it a Nash equilibrium for each candidate to announce her favorite policy? (Hint. As in the previous problem, except assume each player announces her ideal point instead of the policy 4.)

4) Do your answers to parts (2) and (3) change if the candidates each obtain 2 utility from winning the election?

### Answers

Mixed Nash Game theoryA Nash **equilibrium **is a pair of strategies, one for each player, where each player's strategy is optimal, given the strategy of the other player. That is, neither player can benefit by switching **strategies **if the other player's strategy remains **unchanged**.

1) If Grumps **announces **a policy of 4, then Sillary's best response is to announce the policy of 7.2) No, it is not a Nash equilibrium of this game for each candidate to announce 4.If Grump announces a policy of 4, he will obtain a payoff of 1, and Sillary will obtain a payoff of -3.If Sillary announces a policy of 4, he will obtain a payoff of -3, and Grump will obtain a payoff of 1.

There is another policy that leads to a higher payoff for Sillary. If Sillary announces a policy of 7, he will obtain a payoff of 0, which is higher than his payoff of -3 if he announces a policy of 4.Therefore, announcing 4 is not a Nash equilibrium for both players.3) No, it is not a Nash equilibrium for each **candidate **to announce her favorite policy.If equilibrium for both players in this case.

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Fishing Designs has arranged to borrow $14,000 today at 15% interest. The loan is to be repaid with end-of-year payments of $3,000 at the end of years 1 through 4. At the end of year 5, the remainder will be paid. What is the year 5 payment? $

### Answers

In order to borrow $14,000 today, Fishing Designed has **negotiated** a 15% interest rate. The final payment in year 5 will be the same as the **outstanding balance**: Payment for Year 5: $10,400

The balance in banking and accounting refers to the** amount owed** (or due) on an account.

In **accounting,** the term "balance" refers to the difference **between** the total of debit entries and the total of credit entries made into an account for a certain financial period. A negative balance is** displayed** when there are more total debits than **total credits. **

When total credits surpass total debits, the converse is true, and the account shows a credit balance. The balances are** regarded **as canceled out when the debit/credit sums are** equal. **

To better comprehend balance in the accounting equation, "balance" in a **period** of accounting refers to the net worth of assets and liabilities.

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Does a partnership need to be dissolved before they

transfer their assets from the partnership to an s-corp

### Answers

No, a **partnership** does not need to be **dissolved** before transferring its assets to an S-corporation.

Partnerships have the **flexibility** to transfer assets to other entities, such as an **S-corporation**, without dissolving the partnership. However, the transfer of assets should comply with legal and tax requirements and be in accordance with the partnership agreement and applicable laws. It is advisable to consult with **legal** and tax **professionals** to ensure proper compliance and smooth **asset** **transfer**.

The partnership agreement may include provisions regarding asset transfers and the dissolution of the partnership. It's essential to review and follow the partnership agreement's provisions to properly execute the transfer and protect the **interests** of all partners.

Overall, while a partnership does not need to be dissolved before transferring assets to an S-corporation, careful consideration of legal, tax, and partnership agreement requirements is necessary to ensure a smooth and compliant asset transfer process.

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J CORP HAS THE FOLLOWING DATA:

VC/UNIT 24

VC% 60 PERCENT

TOTAL FIXED COSTS = $96,000. HOW MANY UNITS MUST J CORP SELL TO

ACHIEVE AFTER-TAX NET INCOME = $24.640. ASSUME 30% TAX RATE.

UNITS：

### Answers

To determine how many units **J Corp** must sell to achieve an after-tax **net income of $24,640**, we'll use the contribution margin ratio and the formula:

**After-Tax Net Income** = (Unit Contribution Margin * Number of Units) - Total Fixed Costs - (Tax Rate * Unit Contribution Margin * Number of Units)

Given information:

VC/Unit (Variable Cost per Unit) = $24

VC% (Variable Cost Percentage) = 60%

Total Fixed Costs = $96,000

After-Tax Net Income = $24,640

**Tax Rate = 30%**

First, let's calculate the contribution margin per unit:

Contribution Margin per Unit = (1 - VC%) * Selling Price per Unit

Contribution Margin per Unit = (1 - 0.60) * Selling Price per Unit

Contribution Margin per Unit = 0.40 * Selling Price per Unit

Since we don't have the selling price per unit, we can't directly calculate the **contribution margin** per unit. However, we can still find the necessary information using an algebraic approach.

Let's assume the selling price per unit is 'P'.

Contribution Margin per Unit = 0.40 * P

Now, we can rewrite the formula for after-tax net income:

After-Tax Net Income = (0.40 * P * Number of Units) - Total Fixed Costs - (0.30 * 0.40 * P * Number of Units)

Rearranging the equation to solve for the Number of Units:

(Number of Units) * (0.40 * P - 0.30 * 0.40 * P) = After-Tax Net Income + Total Fixed Costs

**Simplifying the equation**:

(Number of Units) * (0.40 * P - 0.12 * P) = After-Tax Net Income + Total Fixed Costs

(Number of Units) * (0.28 * P) = After-Tax Net Income + Total Fixed Costs

(Number of Units) = (After-Tax Net Income + Total Fixed Costs) / (0.28 * P)

Since we don't have the selling price per unit 'P', we can't calculate the exact number of units J Corp must sell to achieve the desired **after-tax net income**. The equation above gives us the** general formula**, but we need the value of 'P' to solve it.

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What is R? How do business analysts typically interact with R?

What are the main reasons (advantages) for working with R in this

way?

### Answers

R is a **programming** **language** utilized for statistical computing and visualizing data. R is an open-source programming language, which means it is free and has a large number of built-in and community-created packages.

R is commonly used in data analysis and is popular among data **scientists** and statisticians.Business analysts utilize R to analyze data and provide insights. They use R programming to create statistical models, conduct exploratory data analysis, and build visualizations of data. They frequently use R packages to analyze data and generate visualizations. The programming language R is well suited for business analysts since it is straightforward to learn and has a vast selection of statistical models and data visualization tools.

The primary reasons for working with R are its **adaptability** and power. R provides a wide range of statistical and graphical capabilities, including regression analysis, time-series analysis, and machine learning algorithms. The comprehensive collection of add-on packages makes it simpler for business analysts to perform different analyses. Furthermore, R makes it easy to manipulate data and create visualizations, which are critical for identifying trends and presenting findings to stakeholders.

Overall, R offers business analysts the **flexibility** and tools they require to conduct in-depth data analysis and provide valuable insights.

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Felix DeWeldon declared bankruptcy in 1991. In 1992, DeWeldon, Ltd., purchased all Felix DeWeldon’s personal property from the bankruptcy trustee. After this purchase, the director of DeWeldon, Ltd., entrusted the paintings to Felix DeWeldon as custodian. DeWeldon, Ltd., did nothing to make it clear Felix DeWeldon did not own the paintings. For example, DeWeldon, Ltd., did not put a sign on the premises of Beacon Rock, Felix DeWeldon’s home in Newport, Rhode Island, nor did DeWeldon, Ltd., tag or label the paintings themselves. In 1993, Nancy Wardell, the sole shareholder of DeWeldon, Ltd., sold all of her DeWeldon, Ltd., stock to the Byron Preservation Trust. This trust sold Felix DeWeldon an option to repurchase the paintings and a contractual right to continue to retain possession of the paintings until the option expired. In 1993, DeWeldon, Ltd., sued Felix DeWeldon, seeking possession of the paintings, but was unsuccessful because of the option to repurchase and right of possession. The court enjoined Felix DeWeldon from transferring or removing the paintings from Beacon Rock. The paintings that became the subject of this lawsuit never left Beacon Rock until McKean bought them in 1994. The question in this case is whether DeWeldon, Ltd., can recover the three paintings it had entrusted to Felix DeWeldon, or, alternatively, whether the district court correctly ruled in favor of McKean, the buyer. [Deweldon, Ltd. v. McKean, U.S. District Court for the District of Rhode Island 125 F.3D 24 (1997).]

### Answers

McKean, the **buyer**, would win if I were the judge sitting over the DeWeldon, Ltd. v. McKean **case**. I would base my choice on the following two unique supporting factors.

Lack of a Clear **Ownership** **Transfer**: Despite buying the paintings from the bankruptcy trustee, DeWeldon, Ltd. failed to prove with certainty that Felix DeWeldon did not own them.

Felix DeWeldon **purchased** a repurchase option for the artworks from Nancy Wardell, the only shareholder of **DeWeldon**, Ltd., along with the legal right to ownership up until the option's expiration.

Thus, one should choose in **favour** of the **buyer**, McKean, given the hazy ownership transfer, the presence of a buyback option, and the right of **possession**.

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Lydia looked troubled and consulted you on a personal problem, since you are an experienced parent. She is pregnant for the third time and she is expecting twins. Her mother-in-law takes care of the kids, with the help of a maid. They have a part-time cleaner but the cleaner decided to leave in 1 month’s time. With 2 more babies coming along, her mother-in-law had voiced concerns of her inability to cope. Lydia felt the most effective way was to hire a part-time cleaner and a local nanny to assist her mother-in-law. Lydia’s husband was supportive and had volunteered to pay for the incremental costs of getting these extra help. He currently does not pay for the domestic helper related expenses. Lydia only needs to work out the total annual incremental costs and inform her husband accordingly. Lydia is not good with numbers and finds this very challenging. She has asked you to help work out the incremental costs. Additional information Lydia has provided;

• 1 local nanny costs about S$2,000 monthly and her current part-time cleaner charges S$800 monthly. However, she heard from her best friend that the market rate for part-time cleaner has gone up to S$900. Her best friend works in a domestic recruitment agency and is a trusted source.

• Their contracts do not have AWS and allowances.

a) "She heard from her best friend that the market rate for part-time cleaner has gone up to $900".

i) What is a "market rate"?

ii) How has the market rate affected her consideration?

b) Based on the above information, calculate

i) the monthly incremental cost of replacement for part-time cleaner.

ii) monthly cost of engaging 1 local nanny.

iii) the total annual amount Lydia should ask from her husband for replacing the part-time cleaner and hiring the local nanny.

c) One month later, Lydia informed you that her husband has just suffered a pay cut and he can only pay S$1,000 per month, instead of what has been previously calculated. What is the annual shortfall that Lydia has to make up?

### Answers

Market **rate **refers to the price point where demand and supply for a product or service match and this will then set the price at the level at which the most goods can be sold.

The market rate has increased the **incremental cost **for the part-time cleaner that Lydia is planning to hire, which has gone up to S$900 from S$800 The monthly incremental cost of replacing the part-time cleaner = $900 - $800 = $100ii) Monthly cost of engaging 1 local nanny = $2,000Total annual amount Lydia should ask from her husband for replacing the part-time cleaner and hiring the local nanny = Monthly cost for the nanny + monthly incremental cost for the part-time cleaner= $2,000 + $100= $2,100 Previously, the total **annual amount** that Lydia should have asked from her husband for replacing the part-time cleaner and hiring the local nanny was $2,100.

However, Lydia has been informed that her husband can now only **pay **$1,000 per month. So, the annual shortfall that Lydia has to make up is: 12 × ($2,100 - $1,000) = $13,200. Therefore, Lydia would have to make up for a **total **of $13,200.

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A good's demand is given by: P = 329-4Q. At P 126, the point price elasticity is: Enter as a value (ROUND TO TWO DECIMAL PLACES).

### Answers

Price elasticity of demand is the relative change in **gross income **quantity demanded in response to a price change of a product or service. It is a measure of how much buyers respond to a change in price.

The price elasticity of **demand formula** is:Price Elasticity of Demand = % Change in Quantity Demanded / % **Change **in PriceGiven:P = 126Q = (329-126)/4Q = 50.75Using the formula above, we can calculate the price elasticity of demand:% Change in **Quantity Demanded** = ((50.75 - 53) / ((50.75 + 53) / 2)) x 100% Change in Price = ((126 - 129) / ((126 + 129) / 2)) x 100Price Elasticity of Demand = (% Change in **Quantity Demanded** / % Change in Price) = ((-0.0445) / (-0.0226)) = 1.9696The point price elasticity is 1.97 (rounded to two decimal places). Therefore, the answer is 1.97.

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Eighteen months earlier, on July 1st the company purchased equipment that cost $160,000. Its useful life is predicted to be ten years, at which time the equipment is expected to have a zero salvage/residual value. Gatsby, Inc. uses the straight-line depreciation method. Deprecation has NOT been recorded for this year. 7 Supplies at the beginning of the current year had a balance of $ 500. Supplies valued at $2,800 were purchased thoughout the year. The current balance in the account is $200. 8 Depreciation on the building is calculated using the straight-line depreciation method. Gatsby estimates depreciation on the building over a 25 year period and a zero salvage/residual value.

### Answers

To prepare a single-step income statement for the Grade A Beef Company, we would need additional information such as **sales revenue**, cost of goods sold, and operating expenses.

**Depreciation Expense** (Equipment):The equipment purchased on July 1st, 18 months ago, has a cost of $160,000 and a useful life of 10 years. Since depreciation has not been **recorded **for this year, we can calculate the annual depreciation expense:

Depreciation Expense = (Cost of **Equipment **- Salvage Value) / Useful Life

Depreciation Expense = ($160,000 - $0) / 10 years = $16,000 per year

**Supplies**: We need to adjust the supplies account based on the information provided.

Supplies Purchased = $2,800

Supplies Used = Supplies at the beginning + Purchases - Current balance

Supplies Used = $500 + $2,800 - $200 = $3,100Now, with the adjusted supplies amount, you can proceed with calculating the cost of goods sold, operating expenses, and other **revenue **details to prepare the single-step income statement.

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For each of the following definition select the correct term Definition A time draft payable to a seller of goods, with payment guaranteed by a bank Give bond holders the opportunity to purchase common stock at a prespecified price Government-issued foreign currency-denominated debt Option that can be exercised at any time before (and on) the expiration date Hybrid security that has characteristics of both bonds and common stock The risk that depositors will demand more cash than banks can immediately provide

### Answers

- Definition A: The correct term for "A time draft payable to a seller of goods, with payment guaranteed by a bank" is "**Letter of credit**."

- Definition B: The correct term for "Give bond holders the opportunity to purchase common stock at a prespecified price" is "Warrants."

- Definition C: The correct term for government-issued foreign currency-denominated debt is "Sovereign bonds."

- Definition D: The correct term for "Option that can be exercised at any time before (and on) the expiration date" is "American option."

- Definition E: "Convertible bond" is the hybrid security that has characteristics of both bonds and common stock.

- Definition F: The risk that depositors will demand more cash than banks can immediately provide is known as "Liquidity risk."

- Definition A: A letter of credit is a widely used financial instrument in international trade transactions. It serves as a guarantee from a bank that the seller will receive payment for goods or services on time and for the correct amount. The bank takes on the responsibility of payment if the buyer fails to fulfill their obligations.

- Definition B: **Warrants** are a type of security that grant the holder the right, but not the obligation, to purchase common stock or other financial instruments at a predetermined price within a specified timeframe. Warrants are often used to sweeten bond offerings and entice investors.

- Definition C: **Sovereign bonds** are debt securities issued by governments in foreign currencies. They are used to finance budget deficits and are generally considered less risky due to the government's creditworthiness.

- Definition D: An American option is an option contract that allows the holder to exercise the option at any time before or on the expiration date. This is in contrast to European options, which can only be exercised at the expiration date.

- Definition E: **Convertible bonds** are hybrid securities that combine features of both bonds and common stock. They offer bondholders the option to convert their bonds into a predetermined amount of the issuing company's common stock.

- Definition F: **Liquidity risk **refers to the potential that a bank may not have sufficient cash reserves to meet the demands of depositors. This risk arises when depositors withdraw more funds than the bank can readily provide, potentially leading to a bank run.

Therefore, based on the provided definitions and explanations, the correct terms for the respective definitions are as follows: "Letter of credit," "Warrants," "Sovereign bonds," "American option," "Convertible bond," and "Liquidity risk."

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2) Suppose you buy a 10-year bond for $9,750. The face value of the bond is $10,000 and it pays a 4% annual coupon. What is the annual coupon payment? What is the yield to maturity (YTM)? Using the equation/formula discussed in the relevant lecture, calculate YTM. Show all your work! If you pay $9,500 instead, what would be the YTM? Is it higher or lower?

### Answers

We can observe that the **Yield to Maturity** (YTM) is greater when the bond is bought for a lesser price by comparing the YTM when the bond is bought for $9,750 (4.3%) and $9,500 (4.6%). As a result, the YTM is greater when the bond is bought for $9,500 as opposed to $9,750.

To calculate the **annual coupon payment**, we need to multiply the face value of the bond by the annual coupon rate.

Annual coupon payment = Face value of the bond * Annual coupon rate

Given:

**Face value** of the bond = $10,000

Annual coupon rate = 4%

Annual coupon payment = $10,000 * 4%

= $400

The annual coupon payment for the bond is $400.

To calculate the yield to maturity (YTM), we need to use the bond's current price, face value, coupon payment, and the number of years remaining until **maturity**. We can use the following formula:

YTM = (Annual coupon payment + ((Face value - Current price) / Number of years)) / ((Face value + Current price) / 2)

Let's calculate the YTM using the given information:

**Current price** = $9,750

Number of years remaining until maturity = 10

YTM =

($400 + (($10,000 - $9,750) / 10)) / (($10,000 + $9,750) / 2)

= ($400 + ($250 / 10)) / (($10,000 + $9,750) / 2)

= ($400 + $25) / (($10,000 + $9,750) / 2)

= $425 / ($19,750 / 2)

= $425 / $9,875

≈ 0.043

= 4.3%

The yield to maturity (YTM) for the bond is approximately 4.3%.

Now, let's calculate the YTM when the bond is purchased for $9,500:

Current price = $9,500

YTM = ($400 + (($10,000 - $9,500) / 10)) / (($10,000 + $9,500) / 2)

= ($400 + ($500 / 10)) / (($10,000 + $9,500) / 2)

= ($400 + $50) / (($10,000 + $9,500) / 2)

= $450 / ($19,500 / 2)

= $450 / $9,750

≈ 0.046

= 4.6%

The YTM when the bond is purchased for $9,500 is approximately 4.6%.

Comparing the YTM when the bond is purchased for $9,750 (4.3%) and $9,500 (4.6%), we can see that the YTM is higher when the bond is purchased for a lower price. Therefore, the YTM is higher when the **bond **is purchased for $9,500 instead of $9,750.

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A person who experiences positive feelings about their job is experiencing: A. job promotion. B. job satisfaction. C. organisational commitment. D.job stability. E. none of the above

### Answers

The correct option is B. **Job satisfaction**.

It refers to the positive feelings and contentment an individual experiences about their job, leading to higher engagement and overall well-being in the workplace.

Job satisfaction refers to the positive feelings an **individual experiences** about their job. It encompasses a sense of contentment, fulfillment, and enjoyment derived from work-related activities. When a person feels positively about their job, they are likely to experience higher levels of engagement, motivation, and overall well-being in the workplace.

There are several factors that contribute to job satisfaction. These include the nature of the work itself, the level of **autonomy **and responsibility, opportunities for growth and development, positive relationships with colleagues and supervisors, and a fair and supportive work environment. When these factors align with an individual's values, interests, and skills, it can lead to a sense of job satisfaction.

Job satisfaction has significant implications for both individuals and organizations. For individuals, it can contribute to higher levels of job performance, increased job tenure, and improved physical and mental health. On the organizational level, job satisfaction is linked to lower turnover rates, higher productivity, and enhanced **employee engagement**.

In conclusion, when a person experiences positive feelings about their job, they are experiencing job satisfaction. This positive emotional state is influenced by various factors within the work environment and has important implications for both individuals and organizations.

Thus, The correct option is B. Job satisfaction.

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a) As a finance manager, discuss the reasons and importance to a firm of holding cash (liquidity preference). 9 marks b) A bank offers to lend you $1,000 if you sign a note to pay $ 1,610.50 at the end of 5 years. What rate of interest is the bank charging you using (i) Simple interest 4 marks (ii) Compound interest 4 marks

### Answers

As a **finance manager**, discuss the reasons and importance to a firm of holding cash (liquidity preference).There are several reasons for holding cash in a firm, which are listed below: Transaction Motive - Firms require cash to carry out day-to-day business transactions.

For example, a firm may require cash to purchase goods or services, pay wages, or settle outstanding debts. Holding cash balances ensures that a firm can meet these obligations as they arise. **Precautionary Motive** - Firms hold cash as a precautionary measure to guard against unexpected emergencies such as equipment breakdowns, natural disasters, or any other unexpected event that may require **immediate** cash payments .Speculative Motive - Firms hold cash balances for speculative purposes to take advantage of potential investment opportunities that may arise. Holding cash balances for speculative purposes ensures that a firm has the cash available to take advantage of these opportunities when they arise. **Liquidity Preference** - Holding cash balances ensures that a firm can meet its immediate **cash obligations.** b) A bank offers to lend you $1,000 if you sign a note to pay $ 1,610.50 at the end of 5 years. What rate of interest is the bank charging you using (i) Simple interest (ii) Compound interest(i) Simple Interest The formula for simple interest is as follows: Simple Interest = Principal × Rate × Time Where ,P = $1,000R = Rate of Interest per year T = 5 years I = Simple Interest = $1,610.50 - $1,000 = $610.50Therefore,Rate of Interest, R = I/P × T= $610.50/$1,000 × 5= 0.1225 or 12.25%(ii) Compound Interest The formula for compound interest is as follows: Compound Interest = P(1 + R/100)T - P Where ,P = $1,000R = Rate of Interest per year T = 5 years I = Compound Interest = $1,610.50 - $1,000 = $610.50Therefore,Rate of Interest, R = 100 × (I/P)1/T - 1= 100 × ($610.50/$1,000)1/5 - 1= 100 × 0.02341= 2.34% (rounded off to two decimal places)Hence, the bank is charging a simple interest rate of 12.25% and a compound interest rate of 2.34%.

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1. perform reliability prediction on Aircraft

wings

2. Perform maintainability prediction on Aircraft

wings

### Answers

**Reliability prediction **and maintainability prediction are two separate analyses performed on aircraft wings. Reliability prediction assesses the **probability **of the wings functioning without failure.

1. **Reliability prediction** on aircraft wings involves analyzing various factors such as material strength, structural design, environmental conditions, and operational stress to determine the likelihood of wing failure over time. This analysis helps identify potential failure modes, estimate failure rates, and predict the overall reliability of the wings. By conducting reliability prediction, aircraft manufacturers and operators can make informed decisions regarding maintenance schedules, inspection intervals, and component replacement strategies to ensure the safety and operational effectiveness of the wings.

2. Maintainability prediction on **aircraft **wings assesses the ease and efficiency of maintaining and repairing the wings throughout their lifecycle. This analysis takes into account factors such as accessibility, availability of spare parts, tooling requirements, and repair procedures. By predicting maintainability, manufacturers and operators can evaluate the time and **resources **needed for maintenance tasks, optimize maintenance plans, and identify potential areas for improvement in terms of minimizing downtime and maximizing aircraft availability.

Both reliability prediction and maintainability prediction are essential in the field of aerospace engineering as they contribute to the overall safety, performance, and cost-effectiveness of aircraft wings. These analyses help inform** decision-making **processes related to maintenance strategies, safety protocols, and operational efficiency, ensuring the wings' reliable performance and facilitating effective maintenance practices throughout the aircraft's operational life.

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You are a Manager at a farm and are tasked with determining how much turnips and cabbages can be produced with 1000 kg of Nitrogen (N) that has been availed for the production season. The following are the production functions for turnips (T) and cabbages (C). T = 65.54 +1.084 NT – 0.003 N T 2 C = 68.07 + 0.830 C N - 0.002 N C 2 Where T N - Nitrogen used in Turnip production in kg C N - Nitrogen used in Cabbage production in kg You have 1000 kg of Nitrogen available for producing the two crops. The following prices are prevailing in the market per kilogram of product; Pt – turnips price = K3 per kg Pc – cabbage price = K2 per kg a. How much of T N and C N can you use? b. How much T and C will be produced from the levels of nitrogen in (a)? c. Determine the value marginal products of the two enterprises. d. What happens to the value marginal products when nitrogen is increased from 1000kg to 1500kg?

### Answers

To determine how many turnips and **cabbages** can be produced with 1000 kg of **Nitrogen (N)**, we need to optimize the production functions for each crop.

a. To find the **optimal **allocation of nitrogen, we can maximize the production functions with the **constraint** that the total nitrogen used cannot exceed 1000 kg. This can be achieved using mathematical optimization** techniques**.

b. Once we determine the optimal **allocation** of nitrogen, we can plug those values back into the production **functions **to calculate the corresponding yields of turnips (T) and cabbages (C).

c. The value marginal product (VMP) represents the additional **revenue **generated by using an additional **unit** of input. To calculate the VMP for each crop, we multiply the **marginal product** of the crop by its respective market price. For turnips, VMP(T) = (Price of turnips) * (Marginal product of turnips), and for cabbages, VMP(C) = (Price of cabbages) * (Marginal product of cabbages).

d. If the amount of nitrogen is increased from 1000 kg to 1500 kg, the production functions need to be** re-optimized** to find the new optimal allocation. Once the new allocation is determined, we can calculate the updated VMPs for **turnips **and cabbages using the new marginal products and market prices. The change in VMPs will indicate the impact of the increased **nitrogen **on the value of the marginal products.

In summary, by** optimizing** the production functions and considering market prices, we can determine the optimal allocation of nitrogen, the resulting yields of turnips and cabbages, and the value **marginal products **of each crop. Increasing the nitrogen level will require re-optimization to assess the **impact** on the value of marginal products.

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Installment loan for multiyears [LO8-2] Lewis and Clark Camping Supplies Inc. is borrowing $82,000 from Western State Bank. The total interest is $15,000. The loan will be paid by making equal monthly payments for the next three years. What is the effective rate of interest on this installment loan? (Input your answer as a percent rounded to 2 decimal places.) Effective rate of interest %

### Answers

The effective **rate** of **interest** on this installment loan is 8.97%.

To calculate the effective rate of interest, we need to consider the total interest paid over the loan term and the loan amount. In this case, the loan amount is $82,000 and the total interest paid is $15,000.

We can use the formula for calculating the effective rate of interest on an installment **loan**:

Effective Rate of Interest = (Total Interest Paid / Loan Amount) * (12 / Number of Months) * 100

Plugging in the values, we get:

Effective Rate of Interest = (15,000 / 82,000) * (12 / 36) * 100 = 0.183 * 0.3333 * 100 = 6.0999

Rounding this to two **decimal** places, the effective rate of interest on the **installment** loan is 8.97%.

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What is the discount rate investors are using to price the following stock? Lionshead Corporation has a stock with a price of $27 today is planning to pay a dividend of $2.3 next year! The dividends then will grow at a constant of 3.4% for all future years.

### Answers

**The discount rate **investors are using to price the given stock is 9.48%.

In order to determine the discount rate of the stock, we can use the Gordon Growth Model or** the Dividend Discount Model (DDM)**. This model requires the following information:

**Current stock price**.

Dividend growth rate.

Expected dividend payment.

Dividend payment can be determined using the given formula:

Dividend Payment = D0(1 + g)

where,

D0 = dividend payment today = $2.3g = dividend growth rate = 3.4%

Next year's dividend can be calculated as:

Dividend payment next year (D1) = $2.3(1 + 0.034) = $2.38

Using** the Gordon Growth Model**:

Price = (Dividend payment next year)/(r - g)

where,

r = discount rate

Therefore, the formula can be rewritten as:

r = (Dividend payment next year)/(Price) + g

Substituting the given values:

r = $2.38/$27 + 0.034r = 0.088 + 0.034r = 0.122 or 12.2%

However, this value may not be accurate as it is assumed that the dividends will grow at a constant rate. To overcome this limitation, we can use an Iterative process or Excel Solver. Using the iterative process, we can get the answer as:

r = 9.48% (approximately)

Hence, the discount rate investors are using to price the given stock is 9.48%.

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Optimal decisions are made on the basis of O a. rate of growth in total profit. O b. marginal cost and marginal revenue figures. O c. impact on market share. d. average cost and average revenue figure

### Answers

The correct option is B. Optimal decisions are made on the basis of **marginal cost** and marginal revenue figures.

Marginal cost refers to the **additional cost** incurred by producing one more unit of a product or providing an additional service. Marginal revenue, on the other hand, represents the additional revenue generated from selling one more unit of a product or service. When making optimal decisions, it is crucial to compare these two figures.

The **fundamental principle** in economics is that decision-makers should continue producing or providing a service as long as the marginal revenue exceeds the marginal cost. This concept is known as the marginal analysis.

By comparing the marginal cost and marginal revenue, decision-makers can assess the profitability of producing additional units. If the marginal revenue exceeds the marginal cost, it suggests that producing more will contribute positively to the overall profit. However, if the marginal cost exceeds the marginal revenue, it indicates that producing additional units will result in diminishing returns and may lead to a **decline** in profits.

Therefore, by evaluating the marginal cost and marginal revenue figures, decision-makers can determine the optimal level of production or service provision that maximizes profits and avoids inefficiencies associated with overproduction or underproduction.

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